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kill weed seeds

Run a mower over the land to reduce the weeds’ height further. Now that all the weeds are as short as possible and the stumps have been removed, rent a large tiller to uproot all the weeds. Since this plot of ground is uncultivated soil, you will need a tiller that has some power: Do not undertake this task with a small garden cultivator! Allow the tiller’s tines to dig deep enough into the ground to loosen the weeds, so they can be removed—roots and all, if possible.

Now use a steel rake on the area that you have just tilled, wielding it like a fine-toothed comb to remove the majority of the uprooted weeds. Next, rake the area again, this time with the object of evening out the soil as best you can and removing stones, twigs, etc. The final preparation for soil solarization will require the use of a garden hose. According to the University of Idaho Extension (UIE), you should moisten the area that you have just raked to “conduct and hold heat, to stimulate weed seed germination, and to prevent dormancy of below-ground vegetative plant parts.”

Preparation

There is lots of work involved since soil solarization entails getting to the root of the problem, underground.   And we will not be taking the shortcut of using herbicides, so that means a bit more work. But if you do not mind getting your hands dirty, then let’s roll up our sleeves and begin stopping our weedy foes in their tracks.​

Soil solarization is a preventive, organic method of killing weeds before weed seeds even sprout.   But the advice below is also meant for homeowners wishing to start a garden with a clean slate, reclaiming a patch of land where weeds have taken over, in such a way as to reduce to a minimum the hassle of future ​weed control. Want to transform a piece of land that has “gone to pot” into usable space? Then the method explained below may be the solution to your problems.

Now you truly have a “clean slate” with which to work. Remove the plastic and lay down landscape fabric. You should try to use one of the stronger types of landscape fabric if possible, just in case—in spite of your best efforts—any sharp objects remain in the ground (which would puncture the landscape fabric).

Ideally, you wouldn’t add weeds that are in seed or even in the late part of their blooming cycle to the compost pile. Thus you can avoid the problem of their seeds germinating in the garden when you later use the compost you produced. But sometimes, you have little choice: perhaps the most easily available compostable material (horse manure, hay, etc.) contains seeds or else the endless sorting of weeds according to their “seediness” would just be too complicated. Or, like me, you just feel that everything organic should be composted.

When the Pile Is Not Heating Up Enough

*Note that such temperatures will also kill any weed roots and rhizomes placed in the compost. Two birds with one stone!

You can also kill the seeds at the end of a composting cycle by solarization. To do this, spread the compost on a very sunny surface and cover it with a sheet of transparent plastic, holding the plastic in place with rocks or bricks. That will quickly create a greenhouse effect and very high temperatures. Even if there is some germination at first, the heat underneath the plastic will be such that it will soon kill both the seedlings and any remaining seeds, leaving you with weed-free compost you can use as you want.

Do not forget to return the pile regularly, not only because that helps to oxygenate it and thus stimulates microbial life, leading to and maintaining higher temperatures, but also so the ingredients on the outside of the pile, where it’s cooler, can also get their full heat treatment.

After a week at 130 ° F (55 ° C)*, most weed seeds will be dead, but it takes a month at 145° F (63 ° C) or more to kill the most resistant ones. Curiously, most common weeds actually produce seeds that are fairly easy to kill and they’ll die at relatively low temperatures. That’s the case with dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), for example.

Q. I’m looking for advice on how to get an area of my garden back under control without using chemicals . I failed to keep up with the weeding in a section of my vegetable garden that is about fifteen by 30 feet. It had crabgrass, clover and a few other weeds that went to seed. I ripped them all out as best I could, but can’t get all the roots out—and I can see that a lot of seed has scattered on the surface of the soil. I wonder if covering the area with impermeable black plastic until next May would kill everything? Or maybe it makes things worse by keeping the area warm enough for the weeds to survive the winter?

An alternative tactic would be to use the natural pre-emergent herbicide, corn gluten meal . Just as you would do with cool-season lawns, applying corn gluten meal at the rate of twenty pounds per thousand square feet in the Spring (when forsythia and redbud just begin to bloom or when the soil temp reaches 55 degrees F. measured four inches down) would prevent a lot of dormant weed seeds from sprouting. Heck—because those seeds are on the surface, ‘CGM’ might provide astounding control. (Be sure to apply as per package directions.)

And the cool air of fall is perfect for getting outside and doing some raised bed building! And if you build those beds now, they’ll be ready to plants in the Spring. Hint; hint….

Because, as Kat discovered, yanking weeds that have already gone to seed spreads the seeds. When weeds are seedy, don’t pull right away. Instead use that flame weeder to incinerate the tops of the plants. Then run the flame up and down the sides of the plants; wherever you see seed pods. The torch will toast those seeds, and you can then pull out the plants without planting next year’s crop of weeds. Bonus: Many weed seeds look like Munchkin fireworks when they pop!

It sounds like Kat had a typical round of frantic but useless pulling. I suggest she let those roots re-sprout, and when they’re tall enough, soak the soil thoroughly and pull gently at their base. (Be sure to compost those pulled roots with lots of soil still attached; they’re full of nutrients, and they’re the perfect ‘green material’ to mix with shredded fall leaves. And the attached soil contains lots of microbial life to get that compost cooking!)